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However, their attempt to challenge President Kaunda for the Presidency on the UNIP ticket failed as both were prevented and disqualified by the manipulations of President Kaunda, who stood unopposed.

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Simon Kapwepwe and Harry Nkumbula challenged the resultant election of President Kaunda in the High Court, but unsurprisingly their action was unsuccessful. After independence Zambia adopted a left -wing economic policy. The economy was to some extent run by central planning, under five year plans, private companies were nationalised and incorporated into large state-owned conglomerates. The government's goal was to be self-sufficient, which it sought to achieve through import substitution.

At first the plan worked and the economy grew steadily, but in the mid s the economy started to decline drastically. The reason for this was that the Zambian economy was heavily dependent on the copper industry, which had previously been nationalised. During the s the price of copper sank drastically, partly due the USSR , the second largest producer, flooding the market. This resulted in a large deficit for the state-owned enterprise. Another reason for the drop was Zambia's involvement in the neighbouring countries politics, and the transportation problems that resulted.

To deal with the crisis Zambia took big loans from the International Monetary Fund and the Worldbank , hoping that copper prices would rise again soon, instead of issuing structural reforms. Internationally, Zambia's sympathies lay with forces opposing colonial or white-dominated rule. Zambia also hosted some of the movements.

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This resulted in security problems, as the South Africa and South Rhodesia raided targets inside Zambia on several occasions. Conflicts with Rhodesia resulted in the closing of Zambia's borders with that country and severe problems with international transport and power supply.

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However, the Kariba hydroelectric station on the Zambezi River provided sufficient capacity to satisfy the country's requirements for electricity. Civil strife in neighbouring Mozambique and Angola created large numbers of refugees, many of whom fled to Zambia. Kenneth Kaunda served as the movements chairman One party rule and the declining economy created disappointment among the people. Several strikes hit the country in The government responded by arresting several union leaders, among them Frederick Chiluba.

In and protests arose again in Lusaka and the Copperbelt. These were followed by riots over rising food prices in , in which at least 30 people were killed. The same year the state owned radio claimed that Kaunda had been removed from office by the army. These extensive protests made Kaunda realise the need for reform. He promised a referendum on multiparty democracy , and lifted the ban on political parties.

This resulted in the quick formation of eleven new parties. After pressure for the new parties the referendum was canceled in favour of direct multiparty election. After a new constitution had been drafted, elections were held in Economically Chiluba, despite being a former union leader, stood to the right of Kaunda.

With support from the International Monetary Fund and World Bank , to which Zambia was heavily indebted, he liberalised the economy by restricting government interference, re-privatising state-owned enterprises, such as the important copper mining industry, and removing subsidies on various commodities, most notably on corn meal. When one party rule was first abolished in , many expected a more democratic future for Zambia.

These expectations were however clouded by the MMD's treatment of the opposition. Questionable amendments of the constitution and detentions of political opponents caused major criticism, and some donor countries, i. In the government-owned newspaper The Times of Zambia reported a story about a secret UNIP plan to take control of government by unconstitutional means, called the "Zero Option Plan". The plan included industrial unrest, promotion of violence and organisations of mass protests.

UNIP did not deny the existence of such a plan, but underlined that it was not a part of their official policy, but the views of extremists within the party. The government responded by declaring a state of emergency and putting 26 people into detention. Of these, seven, including Kenneth Kaunda's son Wezi Kaunda were charged with offences against the security of the state. The rest were released. Prior to the elections , UNIP formed an alliance with six other opposition parties.

Kenneth Kaunda had earlier retired from politics, but after internal turbulence in the party due to the "Zero Option Plan" scandal, he returned, replacing his own successor Kebby Musokotwane. Chiluba's government then amended the constitution, banning people whose parents were not both Zambian citizens from becoming president.

This was directly aimed at Kaunda, whose parents were both from Malawi. In matters escalated. The coup was brought to an end by regular forces, after Chiluba had again declared a state of emergency. One person was killed during the operation. After the failed coup the police arrested at least 84 people accused of involvement. The arrests were condemned and criticised as illegal inside as well as outside Zambia, and accusations of torture were made as well. Prior to the elections in Chiluba tried to change the constitution to allow him to run for a third term.

He was forced to step back on this point after protest from within the party as well as from the Zambian public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. British South Africaand its mineral rights in Northern Rhodesia became a valuable source of revenue following the Mining in Northern Rhodesia Capital and Imperialism in Southern Africa. Zambians' Campaign for Independence, Northern Rhodesia, In order to stiffen Colonial Office resistance, McNair pointedly.

In contrast to the ores found across the border in Northern Rhodesia — Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Large-scale mining on the Northern Rhodesian Copperbelt started after and was … At first, very little F Mining Zimbabwe has a long tradition of mining, The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, Having angered Britain and the US, it is perhaps no surprise that new economic links were sought with countries that were also central to the Non-Aligned Movement, notably with Yugoslavia, a founding member. A road — part of the Trans-African Highway — that had previously symbolised colonialism and imperialism like no other suddenly became the physical and architectural manifestation of national sovereignty and economic decolonisation, and thus completely reinvented its symbolism.

We can observe how the highway project was celebrated in the official media. Each nation that hosted the regular Trans-African Highway conferences issued a set of stamps, for example, featuring heroic illustrations of a continent united by infrastructure, or of the newest technologies of transport. But beyond the official media, too, we find indications of a changing public understanding.

More and more popular magazines, such as the East African edition of Drum Magazine , feature advertisements showing private cars, or publish articles that deal with traffic and individual car ownership. The development of the Trans-African Highway project coincided with a social and economic transformation of societies across the African continent. The comic book series Aya de Yopougon , 13 for example, tells the story of Aya and her family and friends in Abidjan during the s. They experience a rapidly modernising society, dance in bars, enjoy romances and see futuristic architecture rise up in the city.


Apart from the architecture, it is the car that seems to have the biggest impact on daily life. Aya and her friends are often seen jumping into taxis, driving to other neighbourhoods across the city. Society has become mobile. An economic boom has led to a rapidly growing middle class that strives to participate in this culture of mobility.

Naipaul look at how societies dealt with notions of modernisation during the era of decolonisation. An International Highway through Ilmorog. I suddenly wanted to laugh at the preposterous idea. Why, I asked myself, had they not built smaller serviceable roads before thinking of international highways?

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At least my journey to and from Ruwa-ini would have been much quicker and I would have arrived home much less tired and might even have avoided this meeting with a stranger. But as suddenly I became bitter and took the side of the Ilmorog peasant; they would never build a road — not unless money was a flowing river. During the s, the economies of most sub-Saharan African countries collapsed, and several nations also experienced internal strife and civil war.

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The public funding and construction of large-scale infrastructure projects and the Trans-African Highway came to a standstill. The conflicting interests, whether the highways would benefit the capital or the regions, the general population or the privileged classes, and recurring protests against infrastructure projects and the resettlement of population that often came as its consequence, did not help either.

The regular African Highway Conferences that had occurred every few years stopped in the mids with its last iteration taking place in in Cairo. The map of the highway master plan remained with many gaps and incomplete sections. Infrastructure suffered throughout the s and continental road transport became slower and more expensive. Only after the turn of the millennium did investment into infrastructure pick up again on the African continent.

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But this time it was driven not by ideas of decolonisation or Pan-Africanism but by private corporations and was often linked to resource extractions. The s in particular have seen major investment in new highway and railway projects in countries such as Senegal, Kenya, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. A new railway line between Nairobi and Mombasa opened in And Zambia recently began the construction of a new, two-lane highway linking its capital, Lusaka, with the copperbelt in the north, and beyond into the Democratic Republic of the Congo. But most of these projects are funded by foreign consortiums. On the other hand, these vast new infrastructure projects are filling some of the important gaps within the African highway and railway networks, or are replacing those that are ageing and decrepit. It remains to be seen, though, whether they represent the completion of the Trans-African Highway project envisioned in the decade after independence or a new chapter of neocolonisation.

What the Trans-African Highway project does show, however, is that infrastructure is never neutral, never just a technical device. Its study allows us to gain an understanding of the social and political transformation processes it is embedded in. Wells Missionary Map Co. Kille and Jaci Eisenberg; www. Knopf, Funded by the German Federal Cultural Foundation. The colonial period: centrifugal infrastructure We can understand infrastructure as one of the very tools of colonialism to hegemonise and exploit a continent.

The Wells Missionary Map Co. Source: Library of Congress. Originally published in Punch Magazine,